MILLS, MILLERS AND MILLRIGHTS - Gail M. Walczyk
All the mills built on the Shore were watermills. A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour or lumber production, or metal shaping (rolling, grinding or wire drawing). A watermill that generates electricity is usually called a hydroelectric plant (http://en.wikipedia.org).

FULLING MILL - From the medieval period, the fulling of cloth was often undertaken in a water mill, known as a fulling mill (also as walk mills or tuck mills). In Wales, a fulling mill is a pandy. In these, the cloth was beaten with wooden hammers, known as fulling stocks. Fulling stocks were of two kinds, falling stocks (operating vertically), used only for scouring, and driving or hanging stocks. In both cases the machinery was operated by cams on the shaft of a waterwheel or on a tappet wheel, which lifted the hammer (http://en.wikipedia.org).

A FULLER is one who does the job of operating this type of mill.

GRIST MILL - a grinding mill powered early by water, or animals designed to grind various cereal grains into flour or meal, usually for hire, e.g. "He took the buckwheat, corn and wheat to the grist mill for grinding." Drake, Paul J. D. What Did They Mean by That? (Bowie MD: Heritage Books Inc., 1998. p 202.)

A MILLER usually refers to a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour (http://en.wikipedia.org).

SAW MILL - a facility where logs are cut into boards (http://en.wikipedia.org).

A SAWYER is the one who does the job of making boards out of raw logs.
George Parker, son of John Parker and Amy Anderson, owned a two mills. In Item 4 he names one his Fulling Mill. As for the other, he does not state what type of mill it is but he describes what type of work is done there ... it grinds corn and wheat so its a grist mill.

The orphans account of Thomas Wise, dated Feby 2nd 1782, shows that he too owned two mills. Among other things his account was debited with 10 pounds for repairing the Grist Mill, putting a New Set of Gates to the Saw Mill and 1 pound 10 shillings for Making a New Saw Frame and Setting it to work. His account was also credited with 20 pounds for the rents from 2 thirds the lands and mills. (Walczyk Fiduciary: 15).
MILLRIGHT - One who designs and constructs mills and he machinery for the same; e.g. "If they were to have floure for all, they had to induce millrights to the frontier communities." (Drake by That?: 202).


Sources:

http://en.wikipedia.org
Drake, Paul J. D. What Did They Mean by That? (Bowie MD: Heritage Books Inc., 1998.
Walczyk, Gail M. Fiduciary Accounts 1780-87. Coram NY: Peter's Row, 2002.

© Copyright 2008-2009 by Gail M. Walczyk